Mothers who live in states that banned abortion are more than twice as likely to die during pregnancy or childbirth as those who live in states with legal access to abortion, according to a study released Thursday.

The research, issued by the nonprofit Gender Equity Policy Institute (GEPI), found that the majority of American women live in states that banned abortion or sharply limited reproductive rights.

Released to coincide with the 50th anniversary of Roe v. Wade on January 22, the report underscored the ramifications of the Dobbs v. Jackson Women’s Health Organization ruling on reproductive rights in the U.S.

The GEPI report found that in states that banned abortion, babies born there were 30% more likely to die in their first month of life and that the teen birth rate was two times higher in banned states compared to states that allow abortion. 

Additionally, GEPI highlighted the racial health disparities associated with maternal care and the limited access to abortion. 

The report indicated that Black babies were more than twice as likely to die in their first month compared to white babies while also mentioning that Black women were nearly three times as likely to die in pregnancy, childbirth, or right after giving birth as compared to white women.

“The end of legal protection for abortion further threatens to increase maternal mortality, newborn and infant mortality, and teenage births in the U.S.,” the report stated. “These threats are not equal for all women. Women who live in states that ban or restrict abortion and other reproductive healthcare are likely to suffer the burden of these adverse consequences. Nationwide, Black and Native American women already face disproportionately higher maternal mortality rates and Latinas are more likely than other women to be uninsured.”

GEPI also evaluated the American state of reproductive rights on the basis of the United Nations’ 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, which the U.S. signed on to with 192 other countries. Despite this commitment to “ensure healthy lives and promote wellbeing for all at all ages,” GEPI found that the U.S. is the only developed nation that has not made progress on any of the 17 sustainable development goals. 

The Dobbs decision delivered in June 2022 brought the issue of abortion to a fever pitch in the U.S. and affected the trajectory of both politics and marketing in consequential ways. 

The ruling contributed to higher Democratic turnout during the 2022 midterm elections, according to a Kaiser Family Foundation analysis, while research from Mindshare and GroupM found that the overturning of Roe eroded consumer trust in brands.