Nearly a million COVID-19 booster shots have been administered in the U.S., according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. It’s unclear if all the recipients were immunocompromised. President Biden plans to allow boosters to be more widely distributed starting the week of Sept. 20. (CNBC)

Two Food and Drug Administration (FDA) officials who led reviews of COVID-19 vaccine applications will step down this fall. News of their coming departure marks the latest sign of tumult at the agency under the leadership of acting Commissioner Janet Woodcock. (STAT)

An experimental HIV vaccine being developed by Johnson & Johnson failed to protect young women against the virus in sub-Saharan Africa, according to a mid-stage study. The trial, which showed a 25.2% vaccine efficacy, is being discontinued, a setback for the field. (Reuters)

French president Emmanuel Macron’s national vaccine passport plan has helped spur millions of people to get vaccinated – and helped curb further outbreaks, some experts say. The COVID immunity pass is required for people to enter restaurants, bars, hospitals, museums and public transportation. (Politico)

Lotteries and other incentives offered by some 24 states did not have a significant impact on COVID-19 vaccination rates, according to a pre-print study led by University of Pennsylvania researchers. “More substantial incentives or mandates may be necessary to raise vaccination rates,” the authors wrote. (SSRN)